Sunday, 25 October 2009

Paper Stock. & Inks.

As my designs begin to come together, and with 4 weeks left I'm beginning to think more about paper stock and what is most suitable for what i'm doing. Papers, giving a different quality of line and different print?

This is a book I got from the Library on Inks in printing.

Artists in the main tend to have favourite colours or types of ink across a range of brands, but they do not favour particular brands of ink. Yet in the choices of ink they make, they influence the image that is to be printed.
The Relation of Process to Concept is IMPORTANT.
Although printmaking no longer bears any relation to the high-tech, large-scale commercial printing process, at some point they still link.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INKS...There are several significant events within the history of ink beyond the development of printing, the birth of which is now accepted to have taken place in China and Korea during the second century AD.

THE EARLY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PAPER AND INK...Paper from this ear also plays a significant role in the development of oil-based ink. Unlike the thin delicate paper from the Far East, which could be rubbed onto the printing block without tearing, European writing paper was much thicker and rougher, with a heavy-size coating.

WOODCUT DEVELOPMENT AND IT'S DEMAND FOR INK CHARACTERISTICS...The earliest wood blocks in the west were used for textile printing. It is thought that textile printing may have originated in India around 3000BC, although no textiles or blocks have survived. The earliest woodcuts on paper in the west date from between about 1402 and about 1425. These early prints are characterised by boldly designed single figures against a black background. Most of these wood-cuts were intended to be hand-coloured.

THE INTAGLIO PROCESSES, ENGRAVING, ETCHING, MEZZOTINT AND AQUATINT...The First Metal Prints (crible, or dotted, print) date from the second half of the 15th century. The design was created by tiny dots punched into the metal and intermingled with short cuts. Surface printed, the whites are the positive part of the design, which is dominated by the dark background. The inks for intaglio printing, like the inks used during the early development of all other printing processes, were always very simple. In 1645 Abraham Rose published the first-known example of an etching-ink recipe, which listed boiled nut oil and Frankfurt Black (also known as vine black, which is made by burning dried wine lees). Since then etching and intaglio inks haven't changed much.

LITHOGRAPHIC DEVLOPMENTS AND CHANGES IN INK...With this new technique, came the addition of further ink ingredients. At first the inks changed very little. Senefelder's recipe of 1818 contains just linseed oil and lampblack. Until the mid-20th century lithography remained the prime means of colour printing, together with letterpress as the dominant creative and technological force. In the late 1960's, with the introduction of high-quality photo-plates and copper-plates for long runs, lithography began to be the main printing process.

SCREENPRINTING... Screenprinting as we know the process is relatively new, invented at some point during the first decade of the 20th century. In the early days of screenprint, commercial pant was used to print with. By the 1930s, seeking to improve print quality and speed, commercial screenprint inks were being developed. They were initially based on the paint previously used. So screenprint ink developed from a paint into an ink. This created a new principle for printing, based on strong pigment mixed from an opaque base or vehicle. This is unlike Lithographic ink, which was mixed in a transparent vehicle.
In the early 1980's, greater awareness of health and safety, linked to enviromental issues, became prevalent between printmakers. this led to an reappraisal of the heavy solvent used in the manufacture of screenprinting ink, and many artists turned over to water-based acrylic ink for screenprinting.

INK JET AND DIGITAL PRINTING...Digital technology currently dominates not only the commercial print world, but also made major inroads by influencing printmakers who use new technology. The commercial and technical achievements of ink-jet printing have influenced a few, and some famous artists such as Richard Hamilton and Wolfgang Tillmans in the UK, have embraced the technology. A few different printers include:
- Continuous Ink-Jet
- Drop-On-Demand Ink-Jet
- Thermal Ink-jet
- Piezoelectric

The book also had suggested useful websites which I took a look at. Some were no good, but a couple that were good included...

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