Tuesday, 30 March 2010

Timetable For Easter.

I've also written myself a little Easter timetable, so I manage to keep on top of things whilst I'm home for a bit and around my birthday! :)
I don't want to be as behind as I was when I came back after christmas for a previous project!

Sunday, 28 March 2010

Interim Crit. 2.

I had a bit of a flop with the last Don't Panic Poster, and was a big disappointment to Matt at this crit as I'd had so much on and so much to do for other deadlines, that I hadn't done much drawing, just re-search.
My main focus now is The 'Pocketful Illustration Magazine' submission - Deadline 15th April.
The title for the submission is 'I did It my way', with Matt I discussed my initial thoughts and what you would most likely associate with this saying:
- Things people do as a collective.
- Going against social norms.
- Art movements/Music
- Organic/Things having their own ways of existing.
- Who do people idolise? Who do I idolise?

Then relating these ideas for the title to my work, 'my life as a create process':
MY WAY = Pattern

From this, Matt told me to look at Walnut Wallpaper:
A wallpaper company providing us with 'the best new wallpaper designs, as well as interesting vintage offerings'. All the wallpapers are very modern and 'now' and thus are very good examples for me to go by. One featured artists who they just featured on the website was Aimee Wilder, a Graphic designer from Brooklyn, for her design of robot wallpaper...

Aimee Wilder...'Robots'

Another website I looked at was the 'Peep Show Collective'...
A multi-disciplinary collective focusing on illustration, animation and art direction, I focused on the Illustration section...A personal favourite was Andrew Rae.

The other Idea I had was to link the title to the idea of putting together Aspirational Images, and thought of the title as 'The Human Experience.' - Such as, trial and error, problem solving, knowing to much and needing these experiences.
Matt made me think about people such as Katherine Hamnett, who brought about this idea of slogan t-shirts:

Matt also told me about New Future Graphic:
They are a multi-disciplinary studio in London. Below is work they did for Coca-Cola...Their work is all for clients and all have messages and meaning to communicate, which is a good example for what I need to do.

Slogans I've thought about are:
- 'I'd rather be anything but ordinary'
- 'Be excepting'
- 'Wait in line till we all get happy'
- 'Slow down'
- 'Care: Don't care too much'
- 'Money and Happiness'
These are all slogans that I want to use within my work over the length of this project.

Ideas For Pattern:
Whilst thinking about pattern, I also thought about 'doing it my way' and going against norms, so through-out about the idea of how pattern is recieved today, really neat, clean and measured. My idea was to go against it and do lots of hand drawn pattern, which is all continuous line, so it wouldn't look very neat, but it would add personality to it.

Friday, 26 March 2010

Client Brief with Big Issue - 1st Meeting.

So today before we headed out on OutReach, we sat down and had a meeting with Claire, one of the ladies that works in the office and discussed ways to execute this idea of working with the vendors closely and putting on some sort of exhibition for the public, as well as the vendors.

It was important to discuss what we wanted as well as what the vendors would want to get involved with. In-fact I had a conversation with one vendor who clearly stated if it was something photography based he would not be getting involved. Thinking and considering the group of people you are working for is the most important thing of all. Their needs and circumstances.

Ideas for where to have the exhibition are generally 'Leeds College Of Art', if this is appropriate, (must talk to college about it) and Claire from the office mentioned 'The Common Place', where exhibitions like this have been held before.

Speaking to David Collins I discussed how it was hard to put illustration to a brief as sensitive as this, and ways to approach it differently, without using film or photography, but after thinking about it I just think it needs to be quite calming and neutral, not giving to much away, which I think Illustration would therefore be too much which is how Amber and I came to the idea we have now. We spoke to Claire about our Idea of using the laser cutter in college using possibly thick white card turning photos and drawings of photos into silhouettes of the vendors and then to give the vendors the option to write something about who they are or anything they would like to share with the local community about being homeless, which Claire really liked the idea of.

Our starting point was to research the vendors:
- Do they want to be involved?
- Do they want to take their own photos?
- Or even want to be in photos we take?

We asked the vendors if they'd be interested in being a part of it whilst doing an OutReach, doing this on an Outreach, found that about a little less than half would be happy to be involved, Claire even discussed with us whether we wanted to ask the vendors themselves if they had any work they would like to exhibit - One of them wanted to.
What we do next is now to take a camera out and get photos we would like to turn into images/silhouettes. At the same time we need to get an exhibition space and sort a date for it.

Wednesday, 24 March 2010

'On The Wall' - Chat.

This afternoon, I visited 'On The Wall', to have a chat with Simon, who used to be on our course a few years ago. Very nice chap, I've been into the shop before, so I had some idea of the prints that were sold, but it always seems to be changing.
We had a general chat, but also asked him what sort of work he was looking to sell prints of in the shop. He explained that if they don't sell any prints then they still pay you for them, which seemed like a pretty good deal, the only thing that was a bit of a bummer is that they don't sell original prints.
Simon described the work that he didn't really want, and this was photoshop images and digital work really. I asked if he'd be interested in Laser cuts and he said yes, but he also showed us a couple of prints from the 12 artists he's got them from at that time and from one he showed us of photographed tapes, said it was just taken from someones sketchbook.
It's exciting, but we are going to be sent a brief from Simon soon...

The Caravan Gallery.

With the idea of putting on an exhibition being part of one of my client briefs, and also wanting to learn how to go about organising/getting a space to exhibit in. I've been looking into project spaces that already exist and ways people exhibit as some research...
From speaking to Christian he told me about The Caravan Gallery, in which, unusually work is exhibited in a mobile caravan.

The Caravan Gallery is a mobile exhibition venue and visual arts project run by artists Jan Williams and Chris Teasdale who are on a mission to record the ordinary and extraordinary details of life in 21st century Britain. Eager to examine clich├ęs and cultural trends, they are particularly drawn to absurd anomalies and curious juxtapositions, typical of places in transition and in the process of reinventing themselves as regeneration fever sweeps the land.

The Caravan Gallery, a diminutive mustard model (circa 1969), with white walls and beech floor on the inside (like a ‘real’ gallery), provides the perfect setting for an evolving exhibition of photographs made in response to places visited; at any one venue, location-specific work arising from a previous research visit is exhibited alongside other material from the Caravan Gallery archive.

The Caravan Gallery : Early Days
In 2000, members of Art Space Portsmouth were invited to submit proposals for 'an outdoor installation along the seafront' for Portsmouth City Council's 'Summer Arts Across Portsmouth' season.
Jan Williams put forward an idea that involved using a caravan as the focus of her ongoing investigations into British leisure, landscape and lifestyle. Having got the go-ahead for the project, Williams and co-collaborator Chris Teasdale set about finding a suitable caravan; a small-ad led them to Hayling Island where they found just the thing - a tiny mustard (on one side) egg-shaped 4 berth 'Europe' model. They couldn't resist.
Prior to its conversion into a gallery, the caravan enjoyed a brief incarnation as a small but effective gin palace in London - this was at the opening of an exhibition called '3 in the Park' ( John Dargan, Jo Roberts, Jan Williams ) at The Pump House Gallery,Battersea Park.
Williams, Teasdale and friends went on to transform the caravan into a clean functional gallery space by gutting and rebuilding the (rather tatty) interior; brown velour curtains, floral upholstery and a small wood-effect table were retained in the reception area as a mark of respect to the gallery's 1969 origins.

This is good re-search into different ways to put on exhibitions, this was also my idea for business and enterprise which after doing SWOT analysis and lots of re-search into what would draw a crowd, something new and different like this, really attracts a crowd and a wider audience.
Wanting to put on an exhibition, I know this sort of thing would not be suitable for some circumstances of putting on an exhibition, like our project with The Big Issue In The North, but as an exhibition I will put on in the future I would like to do something like this. Even the I Love West Leeds festival would be a good opportunity to put on an exhibition in one of the sheds, which has been done before!

Monday, 22 March 2010

I Love West Leeds Opportunies.

Thought the other post was a little on the large size, so I've broken it up, just for you...

Whilst at Armly Mills, I was also aware that someone that works closely with the group is Jane, who organsies the I Love West Leeds festival, of which Christian encouraged me to get in touch and ask about using a shed she has at the festival to put on some sort of live drawing event. Whilst there I managed to have a chat with her and she spoke about what goes on with the sheds, what people have done in the past and that it's aimed at families with young children. So in the past people have held cinema viewings in the sheds, creative painting in the shed and also one year knitted a shed! It was amazing and is situated within the museum, so naturally Chris and I went to check it out!...

All hand knitted!
Here, we see Chris enjoying herself!

Put together of many different knitted tiles...

...and even complete with foliage and nature!

From this, the discussion also spread to a project Jane is working on for the I Love West Leeds Festival called 'Hippos'. Chris had already heard a little bit about it, but for me it was interesting to sit and listen to what Jane wanted from it, Chris is running the project and I'm along side to help her. I think there will be lots of help needed though! Basically Jane wants 500 3D hippos to be put together! Possibly moulding them out of clay and then to cast them making moulds, to then re-create the hippo 500 times! They are for children to decorate, but need to be of a size so that it can be completed throughout one lesson.
A fun but seemingly scary brief?!?
Chris and I spoke about it on walking back to college after being at Armly Mills, and discussed things that would need to be thought about:
- Firstly, where to actually store 500 hippos whilst they are all being made!?
- What is the right number order/how to get the hippos made quickly, efficiently and effectively in the time there is? Some sort of strategy and time efficient way to produce them?
- What material would be best to make them from? Thinking about them 'breaking' or 'chipping' somehow.
- How to actually put a hippo together, using clay and other materials? Think a trip to ceramics might be useful.

Sunday, 21 March 2010

Armly Mills.

Today I went to Armly Mills to join the Community Arts/Museum project which started on March the 8th. Working with 2 artists, Kevin a painter and 'maker' and also Shari Baker who works in photography and as a film artist. The work shops take place at Armly Mills Museum, It's an intergenerational project and so the people Im working alongside are older, to then produce something to go into the city museum.
Thought it would be a good step in getting involved with a live community brief, which should then prepare me even more for my client brief with The Big Issue In The North, which I in-fact have a meeting about with the people at the office on friday.

Both Kevin and Shari are such lovely people, and so turning up didn't feel too daunting at all, in fact quite nice, as they both seemed very enthusiastic and happy to see someone coming along. On first arrival I really did have no idea what this project was for and just understood that it was a community brief, and would be people of all ages. Turns out, that at the moment it's me, Chris and some very lovely much older people, who have lots of interesting and endearing stories to tell.

When I first got there Shari sat me down and explained her ideas and aspirations for the project at hand. I also spoke to her about what I do in college and who I am as a creative I guess, she is very interested in film and so I mentioned that I was doing a video elective and planning to do surrealist dream sequences using black and white and old filming techniques. She was great to talk to and said she'd be interested in seeing the film when it's finished.
She then told me that Kevin had managed to get hold of this very old projector, so we then discussed the quality of stop-motion and old film techniques, which was nice.

The project is based on part of a larger government funded scheme, which is about promoting recycling and this eco-friendly lifestyle. The project is called Artivism, and guided by Kevin and Shari, they want everyone who comes to approach the brief through using memories.
Hopes for this project are to, through the sessions I will now be attending each week (minus two weeks in easter), make these paper mache heads/structures, from these we will tell a story, and then from this to all come together as a group and putting together one big piece to me exhibited in the museum. Although Shari wants this to be projected, or the video she captures and photos she gets from each session combined to make a film then projected onto the 3D work.
She also mentioned that if I had any ideas, or contributions I wanted to add, to speak up and they'd be more than welcome.

So today I spent the two hours (which went ever so quickly), putting together a paper mache head, I think the idea was that the character that we form, is some sort of representative of someone or something/maybe a feeling you've had throughout your life. I didn't really think about this much as there wasn't much that came to mind, maybe except toys when I was younger. As I worked and gave it ears, it became 'Hey Arthur' from a television program I watched when I was younger!
It was the most fun I've had in ages, really calming, relaxed and felt good to be doing something messy that didn't have pressure behind it and a need to please someone and be really impressive, the character was for ourselves really. It was also really nice to be amongst people I'm not normally amongst, although I know that I've become 100% more confident in working and entering unknown areas, from working with people in my Send And Receive project.
I think that Chris has realised from what she produced today, that her vocation in life is to work with the Muppets!

So I've got homework already, which is pretty exciting! For next monday I need to email Shari a photo of a memory or time in my life when I was really young. Also apply a meaning and story to my paper mache piece, give the 'thing' some sort of life story or position in society, so as to, over the coming weeks, with kevin make some sort of box, or structure for the head to have a place. I also need to email Shari a fact about myself that no one really knows.

Summer Placements.

I've been emailing a women called Joanna Migdal, she specializes in sundials, but has done lots of commissioned and public sculpture work as well!
Below is a link to her website...

Below is a link to the 'Art In Action', the four day festival I will be helping out at. Joanna helps organise it and she replied to me email saying she would love to have some help every morning setting up and then also helping out during the day too, possibly serving tea. But then she also said that during the day it will be a great opportunity for me to meet up with hundreds of young artists and she said she will introduce me to all of them that she knows.
Although Joanna specialises in sculpture, and I lean more towards illustration I'm sure that I will learn copious amounts and find her work very interesting! Plus having the chance to mix with so many artists will be an amazing experience, not only through gaining more knowledge, but also networking, making contacts and may be a way of getting more work placements?!

This woman will be at the festival, I really like her work, she produces childrens books, but constructs illustration using felt. Very special and personal little books...

Saturday, 13 March 2010

International Book Fair.

Today was the second and last day of the International Book fair, Paul and I had the last shift behind the stall, watching over the books and taking the money when sold. I helped out last year, but it seemed that this year was a totally different experience and I 'realised' a lot from doing it - if that makes any sense!
I'd given my books in, to be at the show, I had to ask myself why my books were in the show and why I had put them in the show, it's because as a creative and part of this brief I want as many people as possible to see my work, thus - making online portfolios and submitting work to fairs like this is important for me. A women was looking at the Leeds Vis Com stall and was browsing through my book for a while, I ended up giving to her for free, because ultimately I didn't want any money for it - my aim was just to let people see my work. She asked for my website, unfortunately I had to give her my blog address, and so now I am excited to get some online portfolios up and running quickly. She was running her own stall called Antic-Ham and popped over later to give me one of her little zines that she had put together as a collective of lots of different artists, in return for me giving her one of my books for free. Her details were also enclosed inside:

I got excited when I came to a stall, where I saw a book I'd seen at the art market many a time and never had the chance to buy, because I am pretty poor most of the time, even if it was only £3! By Anthony Zinonos, whos link is below:

This is the little zine I bought, I am a sucker for circles and just think that this book is so nicely put together and simple, but looks so well articulated. The cover is my favourite image, I want to do more work with frames in the images. Here are a couple of images from the book:

A very special Zine...!

Friday, 12 March 2010

Re-assessing Competition Brief.

It seems I have been having some sort of mental breakdown over the last few weeks and with my work load, a feeble excuse, I have not had the time to work to the Don't Panic TV poster design, and will not be entering anything in for the actual competition.
I had a realisation as I was struggling to get something done for it, with the pressure, that It wasn't good for me to be doing that at this time, and so I decided that I would still work on the project but not enter my work to the website. This then gives me more time... My problem is that I feel I need more of a style to my work before I go and try and put it to a concept. I got this from looking through other creatives websites and blogs.
However, I have begun to use a sketchbook every day, to better my drawing and understand who I am as a designer, this will also help give my work a voice, as I am concentrating on putting words and my thoughts and feelings into the little drawings I'm doing. So I've carried on research for this TV brief and have decided I will just use the brief to do some drawings in my sketchbook and generate ideas for later.

Beauty Within Society.
Below is a video that shows what the beauty industry and mostly then, the media has on society...
It ties in brilliantly with the concept I came up with for the TV poster and is nothing but interesting when you really question what TV does to us, girls in particular?

Thursday, 11 March 2010

Interim Crit 1.

Today I had my tutorial with Matt Hodson, who used to be a student at Leeds College. In general it was about what I had planned for this project, but he also helped me in a big way in another one of my personal aims for this project, which is to understand and develop a rigid style and personality in/for my work.
I had just entered the Don't Panic poster competition and Matt then made me question who would see my work through this process and what I wanted to gain from entering my work into competitions - The Value of Don't Panic?' From this he suggested putting online portfolios together and possibly sending work to agencies, this panicked me a little, but is a really good way of getting my work seen! Especially as we've now entered this digital age of working.

From my worry of developing style in my work, Matt's told me draw draw draw! and begin forming a visual book of drawing, but also which I think is another important aspect of my work I want to put forward more strongly is to develop my own tone of voice through my work.
I also mentioned how I was frustrated by the way that I sometimes feel like I try to be and draw like other people, when really I just need to be myself. This is to be developed through my visual book and forming sentences/speaking and developing my own voice as a speaker through my work. A sentence I thought up that I feel reflects my thoughts is: 'Don't try to be: Just do.' Matt suggested always coming up with a slogan first and then put an image to it.

I also spoke about the idea of taking my laser cutting further with pattern as well, and likened the idea to Rob Ryans' Laser cuts and Matt's made me think about the idea of making it different in a lot of ways and produce something that people haven't pin-pointed yet!
I want to make myself draw lots of hand-drawn type, as I struggle with adding digital type to images.

He suggested some artists/designers for some inspiration:
Firstly Paul Davis...
Who works mostly through meanings and messages through sketchbooks.

Adrian Johnson...
Who doesn't really work how I like too but his messages portrayed through his work are excellent, clean/crisp images! All his work is client based and he's always working to a target audience. The website, seen below is also very very nice!

Lastly, Laura Carlin...
Has had many many clients, Laura primarly works in her sketchbook, both on location and at her studio. a prolific drawer and painter, she has learnt to appreciate mistakes and understand the power of white space. There is a book cover she has done which I love, a repeat pattern and then another image. I want to make sure I draw lots of pattern in my visual book.

Wednesday, 10 March 2010

Leeds - Henry Moore Institute.

Last friday Amber and I found ourselves at The Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, it is well-known for it's award-winning exhibitions, being a fantastic research centre and also a sculpture archive. In it's latest exhibition, the definition of sculpture has been adapted, in which Alan Johnstons' drawings give a new perspective on a familiar space. The exhibition, named, 'Drawing a Shadow: No Object', see's his drawings all over the walls of the Henry Moore institute and is placed in the main gallery.

It was interesting to see how this guy had been given a space to fill by the museum and then how he had interpreted the space. Without reading about the exhibition before you go, it is hard to recognise what the exhibtion actually is when you first walk in, you find yourself looking for work on the walls. It was not what I thought it would be, assuming it was drawings in the most literal sense. Where as, this exhibition displays and communicates the ideas of a structures shadow being formed against the walls of the gallery. The shadows are in fact the shadows of former buildings which stood before The Henry Moore Institute, so with the exhibition is formed a bit of historical knowledge.

It was good to see an exhibition that had been interpreted this way because It opened up my eyes to the idea of what an exhibition can be and that it's just as much about the space you are working in or putting work in as the work you are actually doing...It has been an eye opener also because as part of one of my briefs with The Big Issue In The North, Amber and I are putting on an exhibition at the end of it.

Online Portfolios.

As part of this brief I want to come to the end of it with a strong portfolio of work, and also get as many people as I can to see my work. Therefore I want to research into online portfolios and look into getting an account with as many as I see that I like and would suit my work.
So I've started looking and re-searching into finding good sites to use as a portfolio, but firstly I remembered one of which a friend showed me, which you are able to personalise a bit as well. It's called Krop:

Above is my friends photography portfolio and below is a friends illustration portfolio, i think it flatters both styles of work and looks fresh, tidy and clean cut which is what
When putting a portfolio together I think it is as much about you as an artist, as what your customer what want to see, to make them feel at ease and feel that you would be a loyal and trustworthy creative to hire.

Then as you can see below, when you scroll down you can select pieces of work and they are blown up to A5 size...

It's importantly used as a portfolio to find work as well, as you can attach a Creative CV/Resume to your portfolio page which people can look at whilst viewing your work. Of course for now I chose the free option, but there is an upgrade you can purchase, which gives you unlimited images, styling your gallery and video inputting systems. But I guess as an artist it's good to be selective with the work I will post, so this possibly works in my favour.
To view contact details of any artists you must be a registered company as well, so this in turn means if you are approached, you will be approached proffesionaly.

Another nice looking (blog) but looks a lot like a portfolio if you pick the right layout is on Tumblr! Here is again a friends tumblr account:

...and below by clicking an image enlarged and a caption or writing if desired.

One other website I came across, was a site called Cargo...

Client Brief with Big Issue In The North - STRETCH.

Talking to Claire in the Office at The Big Issue In The North, we have arranged a date to sit down and discuss what they really want us to produce or to happen, to engage with the vendors further. We have already spoken about the use of photography and possibly giving the vendors disposable cameras.
As it stands, Amber and I have a meeting to properly discuss it on the 26th March at 1pm. This gives a chance to concentrate on briefs we have now and then get a good start on it over easter also.

For now I've been looking into how I can re-search it a little and from having a tutorial with Nick, he mentioned that it would be good to get in touch with a woman called Carlotta Goulden who works for STRETCH - working in collaboration with museums and art galleries they create art events for specific groups, to help people access their cultural community and engage with society through creative arts.
They have apprantley done a homeless project, in which they produced a film form it. I have sent her an email asking her about it and seeing if she could possibly link me to the film they did or send it to me somehow.

She got back to me extremely quickly, and posted a couple of links that were films, based on a couple of homeless people in Leeds. This has helped in seeing how they dealt with such an emotive and sensitive subject. Obviously there are lots of issues surrounding this kind of brief, and stuff that Amber and I will have to seriously consider in doing it, as the people we working with in the client brief have specific circumstances. I think the idea we would ideally like to communicate is bringing the vendors and society closer together.

It will also be nice collaborating with someone throughout this brief, and working towards a finished piece/two different styles of work together.

Here's a screen shot of one of the videos Carlotta sent mee linked me too...Heres the website as well: http://www.myyorkshire.org/gallery.asp?type=1&journeyid=12

These videos have given me ideas of what sort of subjects you want to talk about with people in these circumstances. It's given me ideas and ways to approach it when we have a meeting with Claire from the office. I've emailed Carlotta thanking her very, very much! and also said I may contact her over the next few days with some questions or when we finally have the meeting with Claire, to ask questions about how they went about it?

Thursday, 4 March 2010


Seeing as the deadline date was ridiculously close to starting this project, my poster didn't really get a fair chance in the voting system. It says to make sure you get your poster done early so as to get the full time to get votes, although I thought that my wallpapers were good to enter for the theme and so looking at it overall, it gave my work some sort of recognition, some people will have seen it I guess! It served some sort of purpose and got me stuck in quickly.



This month it's being judged by Rob Brearly of design studio Golden. At one point he did actually work in Leeds and Thompson Design Partners. I've looked into what kind of work he produces through his website http://www.rgbstudio.co.uk/ as this in turn will lead to what poster he decides to chose. He works in the graphic design sector and does lots of campaign work plus promotional material, and has just become GOLDEN.

I've begun thinking about the poster, which i probably should have done earlier, as it's important not to look at the 'deadline for votes' as the actual deadline, if my posters to actually have any success. Here's an initial brainstorm of my ideas regarding TV:

But here is an amazing bit of film/animation which paul sent to me in regards my crit studies subject. 'What Idea of femininity does Barbie Signify?' Which also ties in well with my animation I did for the fmp in year 1. Im so in love with this film piece. Although, through watching it I think it's what I want to base my next illustration/image on for the this Don't Panic Poster. I think that as a theme for my poster it will mean I'm able to create a good piece of work which I really believe in, as It's a subject I am very passionate about.

From watching this video and from re-search I have done for previous projects I have now created another brainstorm of ideas for an image around this subject/theme.
I still haven't decided what medium I want to create the poster in, as in through drawing or laser cut or paint. Although as I was saying in my post about the first poster I submitted I don't think that anything screenprinted or laser cut will come through and be seen as well as it should be, which means I will probably almost definitely submit something digital and drawn for this brief, but then to adapt it in ways, possibly laser cut it and layer them up.

Wednesday, 3 March 2010

3rd Draft.

On my way home I popped into the art market and went to 3rd Draft. The 4th in a series of one night illustration showcases, curated by Nous Vous in collaboration with theartmarket. It is an open and free exhibition, which makes it even more worth while going along! It's a good oppurtunity to pick up some, unique and affordable, artists books and fanzines. A particular favourite is
Cafe royal which is co-ordinated by Craig Atkinson, a illustrator that I really admire. I found some of his books on the shelves, they were reflective of what I would like to produce to get my work seen.

There was also another artist that I really liked, I liked the idea of the little running commentary and photo that has been adapted ever so slightly. This is something I need to develop more in my work, such as writing thoughts and how I view the world as a designer, and things that I SEE. This in turn will stylise my work and make it mine, which is something I wanted to define throughout this project.